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Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)


Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affects a woman’s hormones leading to hair growth on the face and body as well as balding. PCOS causes fluid-filled sacs to grow in the ovaries; these follicles contain an immature egg that will never mature enough to trigger ovulation. A high amount of androgen disrupts the menstrual cycle, and inhibition of ovulation alters the level of oestrogen, progesterone, LH and FSH.

What is PCOS?

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a hormonal disorder that occurs at a reproductive age leads to prolonged menstrual cycles and high levels of the male hormone, androgen in women.

Why is PCOS associated with pelvic pain and infertility?

PCOS may cause ovarian hyper-stimulation that occurs when ovaries release a cornucopia of hormones displaying symptoms of pelvic pain and abdominal bloating. Ovarian cysts may also arise from PCOS leading to a sharp pain in the pelvic region; this type of pain may disappear and reappear after a while. Hormonal imbalances from PCOS disrupt the release and development of eggs interfering with ovulation leading to infertility. Higher amounts of the male hormone cause women to skip periods, making it challenging for them to get pregnant

Common polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) symptoms include:

  • Irregular menstrual cycles from a lack of ovulation prevent the uterine lining from shedding monthly.
  • The uterine lining builds up for an extended period causing excessive bleeding as a result of heavy periods.
  • Excess hair growth, also known as hirsutism is typical in a majority of women with PCOS who develop hair on their face, chest, belly and back.
  • An excess of the male hormone can make the skin oilier than usual. Areas of the chest and back become breeding grounds for acne.
  • A majority of women with PCOS are obese, and being insulin resistant increases the chance of developing type 2 diabetes.
  • High levels of male hormones result in male-intended baldness in women with PCOS causing the hair on the scalp to become thin and eventually fall out.
  • Dark patches form in the creases of the neck, under the breasts and in the groin.

What causes PCOS?

Diabetes, insulin resistance, genetics and inflammation are all factors that contribute to the development of PCOS. Ovaries are unable to regulate the production of hormones and eggs normally because of the high levels of male hormones released.

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is linked to diabetes as most women with PCOS are insulin resistant, meaning that their cells can’t utilise insulin correctly. The pancreas produces a hormone, insulin to assist the body in utilising sugar from food for energy.

The pancreas produces an excess amount of insulin to compensate for the cells that cannot use insulin properly, and the demand for insulin increases. Because of the excess amount of insulin produced by the pancreas, ovaries are triggered to produce more male hormones.

How is polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) diagnosed and treated?

PCOS is diagnosed in women with high androgen levels, polycystic ovaries and those who experience irregular menstrual cycles. A pelvic exam involves the insertion of protected gloved fingers into the vagina to check for abnormal growths in the uterus and ovaries. Blood tests detect high levels of the male hormone as well as cholesterol, insulin and triglyceride levels to evaluate the risk for diabetes and heart disease.

Vaginal ring and patch contraceptives, as well as birth control pills, restore healthy hormonal balance by producing oestrogen and progestin regulating ovulation protecting against endometrial cancer, improving fertility and relieving excess hair growth.

Surgery remains an option for fertility if other treatments such as contraceptives fail to work. Dr Benecke and his team of specialists at the Endometriosis Clinic aim to treat PCOS as well as associated symptoms of pelvic pain and infertility using suitable individual treatment measures. Our endocrinologists will assist with hormone deficits utilising specialised treatments for hormonal imbalance minimising the effect of PCOS.

Specialised Services

While Dr Benecke is a gynaecologist & obstetrician offering the full range of women's health services, his niche lies in the treatment and management of the following gynaecological conditions:


Due to the complexity of the diagnosis, Dr Benecke is meticulous during each consultation and using a multidisciplinary approach he can provide highly specialised treatment and management of this condition as well as the related symptoms such as chronic pelvic pain and the complication of infertility.



Sharing similar symptoms to that of endometriosis, fibroids are growths that develop on the uterus. The size of fibroids can range, growing from the size of a pea to the size of a watermelon, distorting the uterus and causing disabling symptoms.



Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a hormonal disorder that disrupts oestrogen production and causes an imbalance of the male hormones, androgens. PCOS causes disruption of the menstrual cycle leading to complications such as severe abnormal uterine bleeding, the development of numerous fluid-filled cysts in the ovaries and infertility.